Subalpine fir

Category: Softwood
Region: Interior
Title: Subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa)

Subalpine fir, also known as balsam or balsam fir, grows throughout BC’s interior and is marketed with lodgepole pine and interior spruce as the SPF (spruce-pine-fir) species group.

A medium-sized tree that grows about 20 to 35 metres tall and usually found in mid to high elevations, subalpine fir wood is used for lumber, plywood, veneers, boxes and pulp.

Kiln-dried SPF lumber is used as a structural framing material in a wide variety of residential, commercial, industrial and agricultural applications.

Where it grows

Subalpine fir, also known as balsam or balsam fir, grows throughout most of the BC Interior from mid to high elevations, as well as near sea level on the north coast. It is most common in humid, continental boreal climates with a short growing season, grows less frequently in cool temperate climates, and is rare in warmer, drier climates.

It occasionally occurs in pure stands but is usually mixed with other species, principally Engelmann spruce and white spruce. Its high shade tolerance makes it a desirable component in mixed-species stands.

Identifiable characteristics

Subalpine fir is a medium-sized tree that is usually 20 to 35 metres tall and 30 centimetres in diameter, although it can occasionally reach a height of 50 metres. It has a low-taper stem and a narrow, dense, cylindrical crown of short, stiff, drooping branches. The greyish-brown bark breaks into irregular scales with age.

The needles have blunt ends and are often notched at the tip. They are blue-green with a single white band on the top and two beneath. The needles all tend to turn upwards, but a few often stick out from the underside of the branch. Seed cones are deep purple and grow upright at the top of the crown. Like the cones of the other firs, they disintegrate on the tree, leaving a central spike. Pollen cones are bluish.

Common uses and applications

Subalpine fir, lodgepole pine and interior spruce are marketed together as SPF (spruce-pine-fir). Kiln-dried SPF lumber is used as a structural framing material in all types of residential, commercial, industrial and agricultural applications. It is used in the manufacture of prefabricated houses, trusses, and other structural components.

Subalpine fir is also used for plywood veneers, planing-mill products, crates and boxes, sashes, doors, frames, food containers, pulpwood and general millwork. Along with spruce and lodgepole pine, it is used to produce 100 percent bleached Kraft pulp and chemi-thermo-mechanical pulp (CTMP).

Indigenous peoples across North America have long used the pitch and bark of subalpine fir for medicinal purposes, referring to it as “the medicine plant”. Interior Indigenous peoples make large temporary baskets by stitching together sheets of bark with spruce roots. They use boughs for bedding and flooring in sweat lodges. Some also use the wood for roofing shingles and burn rotten wood to make a substance for tanning hides.

Tsleil-Waututh Administration & Health Centre
Photo credit: KK Law


Commercial availability

Subalpine fir is produced predominantly as SPF in structural grades according to National Lumber Grades Authority (NLGA) rules for dimension lumber. Select Structural, #2 and better, and stud grades are the most common grades produced. Specialty in-house grades, lamstock and export grades are also available, and appearance grades can be produced according to NLGA rules.

Subalpine fir lumber is dried according to end-use and customer specifications. Kiln drying inhibits natural staining of the wood, improves its strength and stiffness, enhances its appearance, and increases its resistance to decay and attack by insects.


Download our grading guide

Get acquainted with the most commonly produced and exported lumber grades in boards and structural dimension lumber from BC’s interior softwood species.

Subalpine fir – physical properties


Subalpine fir – visual properties


Subalpine fir – working properties